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L A R O N G K A T U T U B O (games indigenous people play)

ARM WRESTLING * Arm strength is tested in the sport of arm wrestling where the opponents grip one another's hand with their elbows firmly set on a sturdy table. At the signal of a referee, the competitors try to pull the other's arm flat on the table. The first to do so wins. Arm wrestling shows a person's staying power and strength. Another version of arm wrestling involves only the middle finger. Two persons place their fingers form a tight fist and at the signal of a referee, the competitors try to overturn each other's hands. First to do so wins.

PILLOW FIGHTING * Two opponents saddled at each end of an elevated bamboo pole hit each other with a two-foot pillow. The competitor who falls off the bamboo first loses. This game requires not only strength but timing, body coordination, and good balance as well.

STILTS RACING AND FIGHTING * A form of entertainment than a means of transportation, the stilts are made of a sturdy bamboo-pole with a rigid step attached. Stilt' racing is a favorite game, of children and adults too. In a race, six competitors line up at the racing area and, at the signal, run on stilts on a course of 50 meters and back. The first to arrive at the finish line wins. Experts attain great speeds at tall gallop. Stilts can also be used in a friendly fight. Six competitors (or any pre-agreed member) form a circle while on stilts. At the signal of a referee, the competitors engage in a free-for-all, kicking each other with the stilts. The last person left standing on stilts is declared the winner.

VOLLEYBALL (RATTAN BALL) * Unlike modern volleyball, indigenous volleyball uses a tightly woven rattan ball hit over a vertically suspended pole. Rules are not as rigid as I violations like palming and double touch are usually allowed. Rattan volleyball can be played on a dirt court or concrete one.

GOSING (BIG WOODEN TOP) * The gosing is a big top entirely made of wood which spins just as well as metal-tipped tops. The object of the games is to stop the target, a spinning top, from a distance of about 15 feet with the thrower's own too if the target spins longer than the thrower's the target's owner wins. If the thrower misses he automatically loses. It is not only how well you can bit a spinning top but also how long you can make your own top spin. On the other hand, a common game using the metal-tripped top involves chipping the other top by aiming the throw if the targeted stationary top by within a drawn circle on the ground. If the target is missed or, if the top stopped spinning inside the circle, that top becomes the next target.

COCONUT SMASHING * Two competitors have a husked coconut which he deems hardest attack. They take a position 15 feet from each other and at the signal of an umpire, roll the coconut hand, such that the impact will break or crack the other's coconut. The first coconut to break or crack enders the owner defeated.

SIPA * Sipa a common street game of children involve kicking a metal pod attached to a plastic fly (a half of rubber bands can also be used). The game can be played by two players or by two teams. The object is to kick the pod repeatedly that or a team reaches a pre-agreed number of repetitions. 



"Ukbo Bunong Braso" is the generic name for our own homegrown art of arm toppling maneuvers. Specifically, the rootword "Ukbo" is purely Visayan-Hiligaynon in origin and Alibatan in character. It was originally developed and practiced by the aboriginal aetas (Tribo-Ati-Atihan) who were born in the ancient twin-islands of Negros and Panay found in the Central Philippines since time immemorial.


The traditional and modern Ukbo Bunong Braso had been an integral part of our national culture and the arts, which was transmitted to posterity as a lasting ancestral legacy. Ukbo is an enjoyable native sports, which is a reflection of our Great Ancestors' time-honored philosophy in life that connote very significant meaning and purpose, to wit: U-K-B-O stands for ULAY (Indigenous) 
KABUHI (Way of Life) 
TABUNON ATIS (Brown Aetas) 
Oyamut (Meek People).

Techniques and Practices

As the term implies, "UK" means "Arm Toppling" and "BO" means "Maneuvering Tactics." That is why it is called Ukbo in the Visayas, Bunong Braso and Tumbahan in Mindanao. The elbow-forearm bending position and finger-thumb gripping techniques of ukbo was originally derived from the Bangkaw (Spear) and Taming (Shield) carrying postures being practiced in the famous Ati-Atihan War Dance and other Ethnic-Tribal Warriors' Festivals.

Ukbo Bunong Braso, therefore, is an open gesture of a gentleman-friendly sports which is a symbol of true brotherhood, love and understanding wherein winning is only secondary. It is a simple test of one's physical fitness and correct mental aptitude.


To promote our indigenous sports "Ukbo Bunong Braso" or Arm Toppling Maneuvers (ARTIMAR) for brotherhood, enjoyment and social interaction regardless of sex, creed and status among its avid enthusiasts and aficionados in our homeland. 


PHASE I - UKBO SA LANSANGAN for Street Children to divert them away Anti-social conducts and other forms of vices to prevent juvenile Delinquency;

PHASE II- UKBO SA KABATAANG BARANGAY for Barangay folkpeople who cannot afford to join glamorous sports to encourage social Participation at the grassroots which is free for all;

PHASE III- UKBO SA BANTAY BAYAN for the Community Neighborhoods to promote better coordination and inter-personal relationships to enhance the Citizens Crime Watch;

PHASE IV- UKBO SA KALUNGSORAN for the City Urban Poor to involve them in a worthwhile ukbo sports fest to spend their leisure time wisely and enjoy for free.

PHASE V- UKBO SA PROVINCIA for the countryside folkpeople to restrenghten the moral fibers of our democratic society by providing a very simple ukbo sports activity at a very minimal cost;

PHASEVI- UKBO SA METRO MANILA for our Pilot Project to be initiated first in Metro Manila Area to put up a core group of ukbokiros / arm Topplers society; and

PHASE VII- UKBO BUNONG BRASO PARA SA BUONG BANSANG PILIPINAS which will cover fourteen (14) regions for countrywide representation to provide a wide membership-base to identify, recruit, select as to train skillful Arm Topplers / ukbokiros; and

PHASE VIII- UKBO BUNONG BRASO SPORTS FOR ALL by conducting a priodic ARTIMAR sports forum, clinics and seminar training for local Organizers, officiating and sports propagation. 

(Draft Standard)

1st Draft: Jan. 1995-1997 
2nd Draft: July 1998 
3rd Draft: Sept. 1998


UKBO BUNONG BRASO is a generic term for Arm Toppling Maneuver, herein referred to as ARTIMAR for brevity, which is an indigenous sport that truly originated in the early Philippine since time immemorial which had been an integral pert of our ancestral legacy.


In accordance with our early tribal practices, customs and oral tradition, UKBO BUNONG BRASO is friendly game of able-bodied men which is more of showmanship and gentlemen sports for enjoyment and relaxation wherein winning is only secondary. Rather it is a display of fine behavior, camaraderie and brotherhood to test one's physical strength and mental alertness. In modern times, UKBO BUNONG BRASO is open to all people from all walks of life regardless of sex, creed and status. It is therefore a cultural sport or simply called in Tagalog as PALARO NG LAHI. UKBO BUNONG BRASO is 100% risk free and 100% safety.


2.1 SIKO-SIKO - It means that elbow to elbow starting position is at 
45 degrees angle of two protagonists. 
2.2 DUNGAB-DUNGAB - It is the correct and proper thumb-finger gripping 
position at vertical angle. 
2.3 TUMBA-TUMBA - It means "one direction" arm toppling down 
technique to determine the winner and the loser. 
2.4 EKIS-BRASO - The two wrist are entangled at "X" position. 
2.5 PINTAL-BUNTOL - It means the pressure and counter maneuver to overcome being toppled down (Pintal) on one hand, and in the other side is a judicious use of force resistance to struggle for counter-reversal victory (Buntol). 
2.6 TAOB-TIHAYA - It is the terminal deciding point to declare a winner is TAOB and a loser is TIHAYA. 
2.7 Time limit is one (1) minute and thirty (30) seconds for minimum active engagement to a maximum of two (2) minutes only. 
2.8 In case of stale male, a one (1) minute rest is called for and both and the bout is resumed. 
2.9 Any anticipatory move automatically means a restart. 


3.1. Game 1. DUNGGAB-KAMAO - Fundamental Gripping 
Technique of the (5) Five 
Fingers and Fist clenching;

3.2. Game 2. EKIS BRASO - Cross (X) wrists entanglement 
position of the two (2) arms; and

3.3 Game 3. PINTAL-BUNTOL - Technically called "LLAVE" among 
Ukbokiros, is a deciding game to determine the true winner (Pintal) and the loser (Buntol). A toss coin will decide for the attacker & defender.


4.1. PUWESTO ! : The two Ukbokiros face each other in front of the Official Table

4.2. SIKO-SIKO ! : Elbow Center Engagement Position

4.3. DUNGGAB ! : Standard Gripping Command

4.4. HANDA ! : Preparatory Command

4.5. UKBO ! : Toppling Down Executio

 4.6. TOPPED ! : Panalo / Winner (Pula o Asul). A winner is declared either Red or Blue.


5.1. Players shall be identified in Two (2) Separate and Distinct Color Coding:

RED - PULA in the left corner 
BLUE - ASUL in the right corner

5.2 The Chief Referee shall have the full command responsibility and complete control of the UKBO matches who will be the "MIDDLE MAN" in between the two players. His dress code is Stripe Polo Shirt (Black & White and Dark Pants).

5.3 UKBO participants or the players shall be categorized into the following: Age; Weight; and Sex. Height does not matter. A Six (6) inch podium shall be provided for underheight player. 


6.1 No lifting of elbow from the center point of engagement. 
6.2 The left hand is holding the Peg from the start to finish without releasing it until the bout is over and out. 
6.3 Two feet is properly planted on the ground. No horsing around. 
6.4 Two fouls shall mean a disqualification. 
6.5 No head tricks and no fancy play.


7.1 UKBOKIRO : A regular arm-toppling player duly recognized and accredited by the Katipunan.

7.2 HUMALAMPANG : An avid enthusiast and participants in the scheduled arm toppling maneuvers competitive sports activity.

7.3 DUMULUONG : Are observers and guests in the honorary status.

7.4 KAPANSANAN : Refers to the disabled participants either male or female.

7.5 KABATAAN : Refers to the Age Group Participants

7.6 KATILINGBAN : Open sports for all the different sectors of society.


8.1 The Technical Committee shall recruit, select, train and accredit the Referees, Arbiters and Stewards.

8.2 Referees and Arbiters will be classified into the following categories:

CLASS "A" - International 
CLASS "B" - National 
CLASS "C" - Local

8.3 The Chief Referee shall be assisted by a Chief Arbiter a one Official Timer.

8.4 There shall be three (3) Games Officials for each Ukbo Official Table in a Triangular position. The Chief Referee is at the Center in between Two Players. The Chief Arbiter is standing at the right corner and the Official Timer is in the left corner. See illustrations:


Contest Area A-Chief Referee 
B-Chief Arbiter 
C-Official Timer 
D-Red Player 
E-Blue Player


9.1 Height : 41 ½ inches / 106 CMS. 
9.2 Length and Width : 38 Inches /97 ½ CMS. - length 
: 25 ½ inches / 65 ½ CMS. width 
9.3 Four (4) Leg Stand : 1 ½ inc. in diameter, with distance in between is 6 inches from the corner of the square-base and 24 inches parallel. The square -base is 35 inches / 89 ½ CMS. in length and 23 inches / 59 CMS. in width. 
9.4 Elbow Engagement Center : 10 inches in diameter and the distance is 4 ½ inches from the center point. 
9.5 The Peg distance is edge to edge parallel to each other. 
9.6 The Red Cushion and the Blue Cushion distance between is 16 inches / 41 CMS. with an oblong square measuring 8 inches wide and 4 inches thick.


10.1. 60 KGS. BELOW (Men & Women's Division) 
10.2. 75 KGS. BELOW (Men & Women's Division) 
10.3. 85 KGS. BELOW (Men & Women's Division) 
10.4. 95 KGS. BELOW (Men & Women's Division) 
10.5. 95 KGS. ABOVE or OVER


11.1 The elimination series is knockout system and the losers automatically eliminated. The winners go to the final and Championships bouts. 
11.2 The Final and deciding points is "two out of three" games. The Chief Referee automatically declares a winner two successive wins in games 1&2. And in case of a tie, game 3 is the deciding bout. 
11.3 The pairing system shall be drawing of lots. The Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for pairing of players shall be in the following formulas:

11.3-A. For 3 Ukbokiros remaining in the Championship round, the binding decision is "2 out of 3". 
11.3-B. For 4 Ukbokiros, always cross out loser until a victorious winner is declared in the end. 
11.3-C. For 5 Ukbokiros, there are always Three (3) byes whatsoever round. 
11.3-D. For 6 Ukbokiros, there are always two (2) byes whatsoever round. 
11.3-E. "BYE" is a player who has no pair and can be paired in the 
next round.

11.4. Chief Referees's decision is final. 



(A brief history) 

Traditional wrestling commonly known as "DUMOG" in the Antiqueno dialect, is an indigenous sport, which truly originated in early Pan-ay Island (now Panay) in Central Philippines since time immemorial. The ancient art of "DUMOG" has been an old Hiligaynon word "DUMO" which literally means to immerse oneself in search for metaphysical powers called "Kina-adman" which was originally extracted from the ancient teachings of "ALIBATA" otherwise known as the ancient language and writings of the early Filipino Natives. Dumog therefore has been an ancient form of Kina-adman originally practiced and developed by the aboriginal Aetas of Panay and Negros Islands documented in Maragtas. 
As early as the First Century A.D., the early Visayan Island was originally comprised of SUGBU, LEYTE, BOHOL and PANILOGA. The islands of Sugbu, Panay and Paniloga were later known as the early Cebu, Panay and Negros, which became the bastion of traditional wrestling in the Philippines. The aboriginal of Aetas of Negros and Panay were the original practitioner of Dumog, in it's antiquated from of hand-to-hand combat used in "DUCOT-DUCOT" or close quarter fighting. The hand techniques are called "PANGAMOT", PANGLAWAS, for the body mechanics in the leg techniques or footwork as PANIL. The beauty grandeur and gracefulness of wrestling techniques were derived from the ancient word KUNTAO and SILAT. Before the arrival of the 10 Bornean Datus in 1212, the native Aetas were already dexterous and tenacious in the use of prototype weapons like blades, knives, wooden sticks, darts, bow and arrows to aim an opponent or wild animals and as means of self-protection against the sea bandits (tulisanis). The Filipino arts of combat fighting were weapon-oriented which has been retranslated into empty hand fighting techniques, which constituted the homegrown art of Dumog. 
Our natives art have varied aspects and relationships especially DUMOG which connotes significant meaning of life. Dumog close quarter techniques have been applied and effectively used in the so-called mano-mano fighting found in the indigenous art of blade-stick weaponry called Kali(s) Eskrima-Arnis. The Filipino Martial Arts is unprecedented in the history of world fighting arts when Rajah Lapu-lapu felled Magellan in Matoan (Mactan) island, in Cebu on April 21, 1521. Historians have claimed that Rajah Lapu-lapu and his men were experts in unarmed combat by pinning down Magellan's men with the use of Dumog ground fighting techniques to finish the standing battle. This we cannot de-emphasize or over emphasize the historical significance and implication of traditional wrestling or Dumog which is not only a fighting art but it is a reflection of our National Culture and Arts in Borne-talents, customs and folk tradition.



A sport without either a homeland or a founder. Wrestling, throughout the history of mankind, has always proved to be a basis and decisive condition required for the safeguard and evolution of the human being in his struggle for life. Gradually, it changed into a way of expression, a social and personal value closely connected with legends, cultures and religions, and finally a sports competition. In its historical process common to all people, is an aboriginal, polycentric and multi-linear activity, which cannot be separated from any civilizations or people at any stage of their evolution or development. For this reason, wrestling is a sport without either a homeland or a founder.


Wrestling was the major sport at the ancient Olympic Games. Wrestling was included in three Olympic sports: WRESTLING, PANCRACE and PENTHATLON.


After the prohibition from organizing the Olympic Games decided by Emperor Theodose, wrestling survived and continued to be practiced, not only by the ordinary man, but by soldiers and aristocrats.

During this period and even earlier, competitions of hundred of different types of traditional wrestling were organized. Many of them, at least 200, are still practiced today as an integral part of cultural and competitions are very successful.


GRECO-ROMAN WRESTLING was included in the first Olympic Games held in 1896 in Athens.

FREE STYLE WRESTLING was included in the 3rd Olympic Games held in Saint Louis.

Wrestling is a living link between Ancient and Modern Olympic Games as it has never ceased to be practiced and to evolve to the present day.


The International Amateur Wrestling Federation (FILA) was founded during the Olympic Games held in 1912 in Stockholm.

1992 in Barcelona 36th Congress of FILA are: 
Greco-Roman Wrestling, Free Style Wrestling, Traditional Wrestling


Wrestling has developed throughout all 5 continents. The FILA has 130 member National Federations, spread as follows through all the 5 continents:

- in Africa, 29 Federations 
- in Asia, 30 Federations 
- in America, 24 Federations 
- in Europe, 41 Federations 
- in Oceania, 6 Federations 
Total: 130 member Federations


Since the reaction of the Olympic and up to the present day, wrestling has always been included in the program, except in 1990.

At the 1988 Olympic Games held in Seoul, there were 487 participating wrestlers in both styles from all 5 continents. 650 wrestlers took part in the qualification rounds on all 5 continents for the 1992 Olympic Games.

Greco-Roman wrestlers from 42 countries and free style wrestlers from 45 countries, from all 5 continents, are qualified.


So far, the following Championships have been organized:

a) World Championships 
- 30 Greco-Roman World Championships 
- 28 Free style World Championships

b) Continental Championships 
Continental Championships are regularly organized on all continents (Europe, Africa, Asia, America and Oceania).


Like other sports, wrestling is regularly included in the program of all Continental and Regional Games:

- Mediterranean Games 
- Caribbean Games 
- Central America Games 
- Bolivarian Games 
- South Asia Games, etc.


a.) Spectators

- At the Olympic Games, the competition area is always full. 
- Asian games in India: 30,000 spectators per session total number if spectators over 100,00) 
- World Championships in Sofia (BUL), in an open stadium, 30,000 spectators per session (total number of spectators 150,000) 
- Championships in Turkey: in an open stadium, 30,000 spectators per session (total number of spectators 150,000), in the competition arena, 12,000 spectators per session (total number of spectators 50,000) 
- 1991 European Championships in Stuttgart: 3 competition days, over 25, 000 spectators 
- Asia Championship in Teheran 1992, in closed arena 12,000 spectators per session

b.) Television

If we consider the total duration of television broadcasting of the Seoul Olympic Games and the interest shown by the public, wrestling is placed 7th.

Eurovision in 1990, wrestling is included in the first half of the sports, which have been covered by television.

The FILA has contracts with European, Asian and American television companies.


With its physiological, functional and educative values, wrestling is highly appreciated as an Olympic Sport. Already in ancient times, the wrestler's beautiful body was used as a model for sculptures or other works, which can be seen today in our museums.

Many philosophers, scientists, statesmen and Nobel prize holders etc., have practiced wrestling.

Nowadays, more than 90% of those wrestlers who win medals at the Olympic and at World event have been to university or completed higher education.



Sepak Takraw is a traditional game played by the Malays of the Malayan Peninsula. In the 14th to the 15th century it was a very popular sport among the royal courts of Malacca. At the time, the game was played by a group of people standing inside a circle. The players try to keep the ball in the air by hitting it with the head and feet. After World War II, a net called Jaring, a court and a set of rules were introduced, hence, the game was called Sepak Raga Jaring. Since then, the rules were revised several times. Today, a standard set of rules is implemented for competitions. Many countries participate in Sepak Takraw competitions like Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Ceylon, Laos, Burma, Thailand and the Philippines.

The Asian Sepak Takraw Federation (ASTAP) was formed in 1965 paving the way for the sport to become popular in Asia. 

How the Game is Played

Sepak Takraw is played with a rattan ball (bola takraw). It is played on a rectangular court divided by a net. Each team is allowed three touches in propelling the ball to the other side of the court with any part of the body except the arms from shoulder to hands.

Basic Skills

Inside of the Foot Kick

This is done with either foot. The ball is hit just below the protruding inner anklebone.

Outside of the Foot Kick

The ball is hit with the outside part of the foot just below the anklebone.

Instep Kick

Front part of the foot or laced portion of the shoe hits the ball. This broader part of the foot allows for better control of the ball.

High Overhead Kick

This style of kicking the ball is similar with the bicycle kick in football. This kick is done when the ball is set higher than the net and in front of it. The instep of the foot is used in this kind of kick.

Punta Kick

The toe of the foot is used in kicking the ball. This kind of kick has less control and accuracy on the direction of the kicked ball, but very little force is needed to drive the ball for a good distance.


This method of propelling the ball needs good timing and control of the body. The ball is propelled by using the broader portion of the head which is the forehead by attacking the ball instead of waiting for it.

Thighs (Control or Pass)

The thigh is used to trap and set the ball for a good kick.


The chest is also used to trap and set the ball for a good kick.


1. The Playing area shall be rectangular in shape 44 feet in length and 20 feet in width divided into two halves by a centerline. Two half circles with a radii of 3 feet shall be drawn from the points where the centerline meet with the sidelines. There shall be one "tekong" circle for each half of the court for service area, with a radius of 1 foot. It shall be 8 feet from the middle baseline towards the centerline. The width of all lines shall be 1 inch. 
2. Two upright posts shall be erected on both sides of the court at least one foot away from the sidelines, with a height of 5 feet and one inch. The net shall be 22 ½ feet across with a depth of 28 inches and with a height of 5 feet at the center of the court. 
3. The ball shall be made of cane or rattan and plaited in layers. Its circumference shall be from 16 to 17 inches with a weight of 1/3 lb. 
4. The players must wear short pants or jogging pants, a T-shirts and a pair of rubber shoes with thick pair of socks. 
5. Each team shall have three players, one of whom shall be the "tekong" to serve while the other two shall place themselves in the two-quarter circles in their half of the court during the service. One of them shall throw the ball to the tekong to kick it over the net as service. 
6. The officials of the game are the Referee of Umpire and two linesmen. 
7. The play is started with the umpire's toss of a coin. The Winner has the choice of either ends or service. A game is usually 3 sets of 15 points. whoever wins the 2nd set serves first in the final set. 
8. The tekong shall keep one foot inside the tekong circle and the inside players must not step on the lines in order for the serve to be legal. The inside players may place themselves anywhere in the court once the serve is completed. The receiving team may position themselves anywhere in the court during the service. Two re-service shall be given when the ball touches the net and falls over the opponent's court. If a serving team hits the ball and the ball touches the opponent's court, the team wins a point. If a receiving team commits infractions of the rules, the serving team gets a point. When the serving team commits a fault service-over is ruled. 
9. Offenses by the serving team:

a) Tekong does not kick the ball thrown to him during service. 
b) Tekong does not have one foot inside the tekong circle during the service. 
c) Inside player throwing the ball to the tekong is not within the quarter circle or is stepping on the line. 
d) Served ball touches the net and drops on own portion of the court. 
e) Served ball touches net and drops beyond the opponent's court outside the court of play. 
f) Served ball touches net and lands in the opponent's court. Two additional services is given, but if a fourth reservice occurs it is considered a fault. 
g) If one or both inside players are not inside the quarter circles during the tekong's service. 
h) Served ball touches a serving team's player before passing over the net.

10. When the Ball is in Play

Beaches Negril Sale

a) Receiving team distracts the serving team. 
b) Player steps on the centerline during play. 
c) When ball drops outside or inside the court. 
d) Handling the ball. 
e) Touching the net or net posts with the clothing or any part of the body. 
f) The ball is played more than three times successively by a team. 
g) Any player's outfit falls into the opponent's court. 
h) The ball does not pass between the boundary line of the set. 
i) The ball does not pass between the boundary line of the net. 
j) Player's body or either part crosses over the center line beneath the net into the opponent's court except when following through after hitting the ball.

11. Scoring. Each set is 15 points. The game shall be won by two out of three sets. If there is a tie after two sets, the third set shall be the tiebreaker. On the 8th point in the third set, the games change sides. Once the game is tied at 13 all, the first team to reach 13 points has the option to set the game to 5 points. Once the game sets tied at 14, the first team that reaches 14 points has the option to set the game to 3 points. When a team refuses the option of setting the game to either 3 or 5 points during the initial opportunity they shall be barred from setting it if another opportunity arises. 
12. In case of injuries, an injured player cannot continue playing, a substitute maybe used for replacement. A 10 minutes suspension of play is allowed but players may not be given any refreshments. 
13. The following offenses are to be penalised: 
a) Use of bad words when talking with any official. 
b) Aggressively confronting an official on decision made. 
c) Kicks the ball aggressively when giving to the opponent. 
d) Intimidating actions that might influence the official's decision. 
e) Leaving the court without permission from the umpire except on occasions allowed by the rules. 
f) Other unsportsmanlike conducts.



1.1 Area of 13.4m x 6.1 m free from all obstacles up to the height of 8 measured from the floor surface (sand, grass court not advisable).

1.2 The width of lines bounding the court should not be more than 0.04 m measured and drawn inwards from the edge of the court measurements. All lines should be drawn at least 3.0 m away from all obstacles.

1.3 The Centre Line 
The centre line of 0.02 m should be drawn equally dividing the court into two halves.

1.4 The Quarter Line 
At the intersection of the centre line with each sideline, the quarter circle shall be drawn from the side line to the center line with a radius of 0.9 m measured and drawn outward from the edge of the 0.9 m radius.

1.5 The Service Circle 
The service circle of 0.3 m radius shall be drawn on the left and on the right court, the center of which is 2.45 m from the base line of the court, 4.25 m from center line and 3.05 m from the side lines, the 0.04 m line shall be measured and drawn outward from the edge of the 0.3m radius.


2.1 The posts shall be 1.55 m [1.45 m for women] in height from the floor and shall be sufficiently firm to keep the net strain. It should be made from very strong materials and shall not be more than 0.04 m in radius.

The posts shall be erected or placed 0.3 m away from the sideline and in line with the center line.


3.1 The net shall be made of fine ordinary cord or nylon with 0.06 m to 0.08 m mesh. The net shall be 0.7 m width and not shorter than 6.10 m in length and taped at both ends with 0.05 m tape from top to bottom to be in line with court sidelines, called boundary tapes.

3.2 The net shall be edged with 0.05 m tape both at the top and bottom of the net supported by a fine ordinary cord or nylon cord that runs through the tape and strains over and flushes with the top of the posts. The top of the net shall be 1.52 m (1.42 m for women) in height from the centre and 1.55 m (1.45 m for women) at the post.


The Sepaktakraw ball shall be a sphere of one woven layer having 12 holes with 20 intersections. It shall be made of natural rattan or synthetic fibers. If it is made of rattan, it shall consist of 9-11 strands. The circumference shall not be less than 0.42 m and not more than 0.44 m (0.43 m to 0.45 m for women). The weight before play shall not be less than 170 gm and not more than 180 gm (150 gm to 160 gm for women).


5.1 The game is played between two "Regus" consisting of three players on each side.

5.2 One of the three players shall be at the back, and he/she is called "Back".

5.3 The other two players shall be in front, one on the left and the other on the right. The player on the left is called "Left Inside" and the player on the right is called "Right Inside."


6.1 The man players must wear jerseys/T-shirt and shorts (round neck T-shirts with sleeves, shorts length at knee level for woman players), and sports shoes with rubber soles. It is forbidden for players to wear anything that will endanger the opponents during the game. In case of cold weather, the players are permitted to use track suits.

6.2 The entire apparel of a player is regarded as a part of his/her body. All jerseys/T-shirt should be tucked in.

6.3 Anything that helps to speed the ball or that helps the movement 
of a player is not allowed. 
6.4 Captain of each "Regu" shall wear an arm band on the left arm.

6.5 All jerseys/T-shirt must be numbered at the back. A player must 
be assigned with a permanent number throughout the tournament. Only numbers 1-15 are allowed to be used by each participating team. The size of the number shall not be less than 19 cm in height. 


7.1 Substitution of a player is allowed at anytime on request made by the Team Managers or the Official Coach to the official Referee when the ball is not in play.

7.2 Each "Regu" is allowed to make one substitution only.

7.3 Player, who is sent off by umpire during the game, may be allowed to be substituted, provided the substitution has not been made.

7.4 Any player having played in any "Regu" whether in the starting line-up or as a substitute will not be allowed to play in another "Regu" for that team in the current game.

7.5 Any "Regu" having less than 3 players will not be allowed to continue the game and will be considered as having lost.


The game shall be managed by the following officials :

i.) 1 officials referee 
ii.) 2 umpires 
iii.) 6 linemen (4 sidelines and 2 baselines)


Before commencing the game, the umpire will toss disc and the side winning the toss shall have the option of "First Serving" or of "Choosing Side". The "First Serving" shall "warm up" first two minutes followed by the other "Regu". Only 5 persons are allowed to move freely in the court with the official ball.


10.1 At the start of play, the players of both "Regu" must be in their respective courts in ready position.

10.2 Serving "Back" players shall have one of his/her feet inside the serving circle. The other foot, must be outside the circle to kick the service ball.

10.3 Both of the "Inside" players of the serving side, must be in their respective quarter circle.

10.4 The opponent is free to be anywhere within court.


11.1 The side that chooses to start the game, shall start the first set. After the first set both regu shall change side and the winner starts the second set.

11.2 The throw must be executed as soon as the umpire calls the score. If any of the "inside" player throws the ball before the umpire call the score, it must be re-throw and warning will be given to the thrower. During the service, as soon as the ball is kicked by the server, all the players are allowed to move about in their respective court.

11.3 The service is valid if the ball passes over the net, whether it touches the net or not, within the boundary of two boundary tapes and falls inside the opponent court.

11.4 The execution of the serving by the "Back" player can be kicked in any manner, provided one of his/her feet must always touch the ground in the service circle.


12.1 The Serving Side During Service

12.1.1 The "Inside" player who is making the service throw, plays, about with the ball (throwing up the ball, bumping, giving to other "Inside" player, etc.) after all the call of score has been made by the umpire.

12.1.2 The "inside player lifts his/her foot or steps on the line or crosses over to touches the net while throwing the ball.

12.1.3 The "Back" player while kicking the service ball, the other foot does not touch the ground or steps on the service circle line.

12.1.4 The "Back" player does not kick the ball on the service throw.

12.1.5 The ball touches his/her own player before crossing to the opponent court.

12.1.6 The ball goes over the net but falls outside the court.

12.1.7 The ball does not cross to the opponent side.

12.2 Receiving Side During Service

To create distracting manner or noise or shouting at his/her opponent.

12.3 For Both Sides During the Game


12.3.1. Stepping on the center line.

12.3.2. Any player who touches the ball on the opponent side.

12.3.3. Any part of players' body crossing over the opponent's court whether above or under the net except during the follow through ball.

12.3.4. Playing the ball more than 3 times in succession.

12.3.5. The ball touches the arm.

12.3.6. The ball rolls over the body.

12.3.7. Stopping or holding the ball under the arm, between the legs or body.

12.3.8. Any part of the body or players' outfit e.g. shoes, head band, etc., touches the net or the post or the umpire chairs or falls into the opponent's side.

12.3.9. The ball touches the ceiling roof of the wall (any objects).

12.3.10. Any player who delays the game unnecessarily.


Change of service is given when any fault is made by the serving side or the receiving side kills the return.


Each "Regu" can request for one time out of one-minute rest by Team Manager or Official Coach per set when the ball is not in play. Only five (5) persons are allowed outside of the base lines.


Any point is given to serving "Regu" when its opponents have made any fault according to rule (12).


16.1 The winning point for a set is a maximum of 15 points.

16.2 To allow for 2 minutes rest at the end of the first and second set respectively.

16.3 If each "regu" wins a set, the game shall be decided in the tie break.


16.4.1 Before the tie-break begins, the regu shall change side, then the umpire shall announce the score followed by the toss of disc. The winner in the toss shall have the option of choosing the courtside or of serving first.

16.4.2. The change of side will occur when one "Regu" reaches three (3) points.

16.4.3 The manager or official coach of each "Regu" can request one time out of one minute during tie-break.


17.1 The Umpire can suspend play temporarily in the event of obstructions, disturbance or any injury to player, which need immediate treatment, for not more than 5 minutes.

17.2 An injured player is allowed up to 5 minutes injury time-out. If after 5 minutes, the player unable to continue, a substitution must be made. If the injured player's team has already made a substitution, the match will be declared a forfeit in favor of the opposing team.

17.3 In the course of such suspension, all players are not allowed to leave the court to received drinks or any form of assistance.


18.1 Every player must abide by the rules of the game.

18.2 Only the Captain of the "Regu" is allowed to approach the umpire during the game.


The following offenses will be penalized:

19.1 Showing dissent by words or action towards any officials, with regards to any decisions and to any players or spectators.

19.2 Using foul or abusive language to any officials, players or spectators.

19.3 To take any improper step or action in order to influence any decision made by the officials.

19.4 To leave the court without the permission of the umpire.

19.5 To give the ball to his/her opponent with his/her foot.

19.6 To commit ungentlemanly conduct.

19.7 To disobey orders and rules of play.

Players disobeying rules (19) will be penalized by the umpire.

The umpire will use one of the following cards.

Yellow Card - Caution 
Red Card - Expulsion

Red Card should be given to the following offenses committed "INTENTIONALLY". 
i.) Persist in misconduct after receiving a caution, 
ii.) Violent conduct (e.g. striking, kicking, spitting, etc.) 
iii.) Using foul or abusive language. 
Note: Any player who is shown a Red card will be sent off the court and disciplinary action will be taken against him/her. The player concerned will not be allowed to play in any game until sanction has been made.


Disciplinary action will be taken against Team Officials or his/her team for any misconduct or disturbances committed by the official or team during a tournament whether in or outside the court.


In the event of any question or any matter arising out of any point which is not expressly provided for in any of the rules of the game, the decision of the Official Referee shall be final.




















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